Miscellaneous - - European Union

Legal gender recognition in the EU The journeys of trans people towards full equality

31.03.2021 / Created by (EMWF)

This study would not have been possible without the contributions of trans individuals living across the EU, who played a crucial role in the study, as reviewers, researchers and participants in the consultation activities. The research for this study was coordinated by Wester Meijdam and Nadège Defrère of DG Justice and Consumers of the European Commission and carried out by researchers at ICF S.A.

The European Commission is committed to tackling discrimination and promoting equality for transgender people. To further this objective, the European Commission’s department responsible for justice, consumer rights and gender equality (DG Justice and Consumers) commissioned and supervised this study.

The research focused on the position and experiences of trans people in education, employment and later life, as well as their interactions with Legal Gender Recognition (LGR) procedures and their experiences of coming out. It also considered the impact of discrimination that trans individuals can face throughout their lifetime.

 Focusing on these areas, the study had two key objectives:

1) Providing an overview of the situation of transgender people in the EU;

 2) Understanding whether there is a positive correlation between inclusive policies allowing for Legal Gender Recognition (LGR) and the well-being of transgender people.

To achieve those two main objectives, the study consulted a total of 1,015 adults who identified as transgender across the 27 EU Member States and the UK, in addition to conducting a literature review, legal research and a quantitative analysis of available data.

The results of these activities brought a wealth of insights into the challenges and barriers transgender people face across Europe. These formed the basis of recommendations at EU and Member State level.


  • Type of publication : Study / Report
  • Author : Directorate-General for Justice and Consumers
  • Co-editor : European Commission
  • Publishing house : European Commission
  • Publication date : 2021
  • Number of pages : 263
  • Language : English


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