The relationship between participation and gender is rather more fraught with tensions and contradictions. These points of tension between participatory and ‘‘gender aware’’ approaches to development arise from –– and produce rather different ways of engaging with issues of gendered power. This paper aim to list the dimensions of ‘‘participation’’ and ‘‘gender’’ in development, highlighting paradoxes of ‘‘gender- aware’’ and participatory development interventions. From that part it raises a question, despite the continuous efforts that have been exerted in the past and up to present to minimize the gap of gender inequality, coupled with the fact that the percentage of females to males in the workplace is increasing rapidly; yet the same problems exist, in particular the lack of employment opportunities and rights. Thus raising issues such as: is gender awareness necessary and sufficient for effective participation of women in gender and development practices? And what are the requirements for this effective participation? Does the effective participation of women overcome gender differences?
This platform is part of the Axis 1 "Strengthening the capacities of equality actors" of the Priority Solidarity Fund "Women for the future in the Mediterranean" funded by the French Ministry of Europe and Foreign Affairs and led by the European Institute of the Mediterranean, in the framework of the project “Developing Women's Empowerment” labelled by the Union for the Mediterranean.